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The basics of stone conservation
Is stone a durable material that does not require maintenance? no! Because the stone itself has a prominent physical characteristic of a water absorption (generally the granite water absorption rate is 0.1%-0.2). Because of unreasonable stacking, packaging, transportation, and external sources of pollution, such as water vapor, rain, oil, etc., the stone is highly prone to pollution. The pollution problems that users often encounter are: pan-alkali, rust, yellowing, stains, oil spots, straw yellow and weathering, aging, fading, gloss and abrasion. In addition, there are watermarks that are often encountered by construction workers during construction. The watermark phenomenon that occurs after the wet construction of the stone is one of the main causes of engineering disputes.
Stone conservation is mainly divided into cleaning and protection. The main principle of protection is that the effective substance in the protective agent penetrates into the stone with the solvent. After the solvent is naturally volatilized, the effective substance and the stone crystal combine to form an effective protective barrier under the stone surface. Prevent the infiltration of foreign and internal pollution, thereby achieving the purpose of protecting the stone and prolonging the life of the stone. Because the water absorption rate of the protected stone material is greatly reduced, it can be said that it hardly absorbs water; as long as the water does not penetrate into the stone, the pollution will not be produced. The protected stone has the following characteristics: waterproof, anti-fouling, anti-ultraviolet (delaying the fading time of the stone), anti-freezing, anti-solubility, maintaining the permeability of the stone, and reducing the difficulty of daily maintenance.
There are two main types of protective construction methods. One is to protect the stone before construction, and the other is to protect the stone after construction. Stone curing treatments are generally very simple and do not require special tools.
 Some engineers may ask, what is the wax used in the hotel now? Waxing is currently the most used method in the hotel industry to maintain the stone floor. It can be said that this is also a wrong maintenance method. why? Because wax is an airtight sealant, after the wax is burned, although the outside water and moisture can not enter the interior of the stone, it can prevent pollution to a certain extent, but the moisture inside and below the stone is also affected by the sealing wax. Can not be emitted, so that water vapor accumulated in the interior of the stone for a long time, it will lead to stone lesions; and wax will generally affect the natural color of the stone, and often waxing will damage the surface of the stone, shorten the life of the stone. Therefore, the developed countries in Europe and the United States basically do not use waxing to maintain the stone, but use stone curing agents.
At present, most of the domestic and international use of an advanced high-tech stone maintenance products - permeability protective agent. It is mainly divided into two types, water and solvent. Most of the solvent-based protective agents are toxic and flammable products, and the primary products of protective agents have been slowly eliminated. The development of stone conservation in foreign countries has a history of more than 30 years. With the development of stone conservation technology, foreign stone conservation products have gradually transitioned to water.
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